(updated for 2013)
- Cosmic Rays*
- Gravitational Field
- Dark Matter
*cosmic rays are highly relativistic, super-energetic ions and electrons
- The Cosmic Microwave Background (2.7 K)
- starlight from stellar photospheres (UV, optical, NIR,…)
- from transitions in atoms, ions, and molecules
- “thermal emission” from dust (heated by starlight, AGN)
- free-free emission (bremsstrahlung) in plasma
- synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons
- -rays from nuclear transitions
His list of “phases” from Table 1.3:
- Coronal gas (Hot Ionized Medium, or “HIM”): . Shock-heated from supernovae. Fills half the volume of the galaxy, and cools in about 1 Myr.
- HII gas: Ionized mostly by O and early B stars. Called an “HII region” when confined by a molecular cloud, otherwise called “diffuse HII”.
- Warm HI (Warm Neutral Medium, or “WNM”): atomic, . . Heated by starlight, photoelectric effect, and cosmic rays. Fills ~40% of the volume.
- Cool HI (Cold Neutral Medium, or “CNM”). . Fills ~1% of the volume.
- Diffuse molecular gas. Where HI self-shields from UV radiation to allow formation on the surfaces of dust grains in cloud interiors. This occurs at .
- Dense Molecular gas. “Bound” according to Draine (though maybe not). . Sites of star formation. See also Bok Globules (JC 2013).
- Stellar Outflows. . Winds from cool stars.
These phases are fluid and dynamic, and change on a variety of time and spatial scales. Examples include growth of an HII region, evaporation of molecular clouds, the interface between the ISM and IGM, cooling of supernova remnants, mixing, recombination, etc.