# Harvard Astronomy 201b

## CHAPTER: Excitation Processes: Collisions

In Book Chapter on March 7, 2013 at 3:18 pm

(updated for 2013)

Collisional coupling means that the gas can be treated in the fluid approximation, i.e. we can treat the system on a macrophysical level.

Collisions are of key importance in the ISM:

• cause most of the excitation
• can cause recombinations (electron + ion)

Three types of collisions

1. Coulomb force-dominated ($r^{-1}$ potential): electron-ion, electron-electron, ion-ion
2. Ion-neutral: induced dipole in neutral atom leads to $r^{-4}$ potential; e.g. electron-neutral scattering
3. neutral-neutral: van der Waals forces -> $r^{-6}$ potential; very low cross-section

We will discuss (3) and (2) below; for ion-electron and ion-ion collisions, see Draine Ch. 2.

In general, we will parametrize the interaction rate between two bodies A and B as follows:

${\frac{\rm{reaction~rate}}{\rm{volume}}} = <\sigma v>_{AB} n_a n_B$

In this equation, $<\sigma v>_{AB}$ is the collision rate coefficient in $\rm{cm}^3 \rm{s}^{-1}. <\sigma v>_{AB}= \int_0^\infty \sigma_{AB}(v) f_v~dv$, where $\sigma_{AB} (v)$ is the velocity-dependent cross section and $f_v~dv$ is the particle velocity distribution, i.e. the probability that the relative speed between A and B is v. For the Maxwellian velocity distribution,

$f_v~dv = 4 \pi \left(\frac{\mu'}{2\pi k T}\right)^{3/2} e^{-\mu' v^2/2kT} v^2~dv$,

where $\mu'=m_A m_B/(m_A+m_B)$ is the reduced mass. The center of mass energy is $E=1/2 \mu' v^2$, and the distribution can just as well be written in terms of the energy distribution of particles, $f_E dE$. Since $f_E dE = f_v dv$, we can rewrite the collision rate coefficient in terms of energy as

$\sigma_{AB}=\left(\frac{8kT}{\pi\mu'}\right)^{1/2} \int_0^\infty \sigma_{AB}(E) \left(\frac{E}{kT}\right) e^{-E/kT} \frac{dE}{kT}$.

These collision coefficients can occasionally be calculated analytically (via classical or quantum mechanics), and can in other situations be measured in the lab. The collision coefficients often depend on temperature. For practical purposes, many databases tabulate collision rates for different molecules and temperatures (e.g., the LAMBDA databsase).

For more details, see Draine, Chapter 2. In particular, he discusses 3-body collisions relevant at high densities.